Description: A completely revised, guide to civil engineering formulas–with more than 500 new formulas. Fully updated, this portable reference contains all the essential formulas and equations civil engineers need for a wide variety of design applications–covering everything from structural analysis to soil mechanics. Civil Engineering Formulas, Second Edition includes new details on green buildings, water supply and treatment, power-generating wind turbines, reinforced concrete, bridge construction, highway design, and more. Each chapter includes collections of problems and calculations with solution advice.
The unit cost of road construction in dollars per kilometer is the sum of the subunit costs of the road construction activities. Road construction unit costs are estimated by dividing the machine rates by the production rates for the various activities involved in road construction. The road construction activities considered here are surveying, clearing and grubbing, excavation, surfacing, and drainage.4.2 Surveying
Planning with respect to road construction takes into account present and future uses of the transportation system to assure maximum service with a minimum of financial and environmental cost. The main objective of this initial phase of road development is to establish specific goals and prescriptions for road network development along with the more general location needs. These goals must result from a coordinated effort between the road engineer and the land manager, forester, geologist, soil scientist, hydrologist, biologist and others who would have knowledge or recommendations regarding alternatives or solutions to specific problems. The pattern of the road network will govern the total area disturbed by road construction.
Road uses: The users of the contemplated road should be defined by categories. For example, timber harvest activities will include all users related to the planned timber harvest, such as silviculturists, foresters, engineers, surveyors, blasting crews, and construction and maintenance crews, as well as the logging crews. Administrative users may include watershed management specialists, wildlife or fisheries biologists, or ecologists, as well as foresters. Agricultural users would include stock herders and rangeland management specialists and will have a different set of objectives than timber objectives. An estimate of road use for each category is then made (e.g., numbers of vehicles per day). For each category, the resource management objective over several planning horizons should be indicated. For instance, a road is to be built first for the harvest of timber from a tract of land, then access for the local population for firewood cutting or grazing, and finally access for administration of watershed rehabilitation activities. The planner should determine if the road user characteristics will change over the life of the road.